Business as Mission: A New Way of Thinking…

Posted by on Jul 1, 2016 in Blog | 0 comments

One of the great delights in my role as principal at Vose Seminary is that I get to see students grapple with fresh ways to live out the Christian faith in both the church and the world. One area that is now receiving an increasing amount of thought is the way in which business can be a vehicle of mission. A related issue is that of the hybrid church, where churches not only engage in classically ‘spiritual’  activities, but also run activities that might operate at a surplus, helping to fund other areas of mission, or which might provide a platform for mission in their own right, or both. My involvement as chairman of the Carey Group makes this an area of special interest to me.

I was therefore specially delighted to read (and grade) this essay by Vose student Caleb Dalziell. Caleb previously served with Freeset in India, and is currently involved with a small group of like minded entrepreneurs who are planning to set up a missional business community. In preparation for this, Caleb has drawn up this draft policy document to guide the group in their endeavours. The project was part of the work required for a unit in Christian Leadership and Management which Caleb has just completed (very successfully) at Vose Seminary.

Do read it… and as you do, perhaps ask God if this is an area in which you might get involved in the future…

Abstract

For a blessing upon all human labour,

And for the right use of the riches of creation,

That the world may be freed from poverty,

famine and disaster,

We pray to you, O Lord.[1]

The purpose of this project is to develop a policy document for a real life missional business community (MBC) that the author and three other friends are entering into.

Firstly, in undertaking a Biblical and theological reflection on the purpose of entering into a MBC, it was determined that within the questions ‘why business’ and ‘why mission’ – in the context of community – lies a Biblically and theologically compelling vocational invitation to “every Christ follower to participate in his work to bring redemption to the whole world”.[2] The business marketplace is simply one vocational platform whereby such missional intentionality can take shape.

Following this, the policy document turned to vision, acknowledging that the MBC leadership needs to be able to step back and run the activities of the organisation through the “grid” of its overall vision.[3] Subsequently, a vision and mission statement for the MBC was set forth, before a number of goals the MBC would hope to achieve, were suggested.

The remainder of this document focussed specifically on potential complexities, challenges and dysfunctions within the MBC leadership team, and suggested mitigation and guidance strategies in the form of policy on the importance of leadership dialogue, leadership decision-making criteria, and the primacy that the MBC leadership team will place on people over profit.

This project concluded by suggesting a four-dimensional approach to the continued development of the MBC policy document prior its implementation, before addressing the need for annual continuous improvement reviews, and immediate feedback loops in the event of pressing issues with the content of the MBC policy document.

Introduction

The purpose of this project is to develop a policy document for a real life missional business community (MBC) that the author and three other friends are entering into.

This project will commence with a Biblical and theological reflection on the purpose of entering into a MBC, asking the questions ‘why business’ and ‘why mission’, before briefly exploring what it could look like when you bring the two together in the context of community.

Following this, the policy document spotlight will turn to vision, briefly discussing why it is necessary, how to create vision, and concluding by canvassing a vision statement for this particular MBC. Subsequently, a mission statement will be put forth, before moving onto the goals that the MBC would hope to realize as they work towards their vision.

The remainder of this project will focus specifically on potential complexities, challenges and dysfunctions within the MBC leadership team, and suggest mitigation and guidance strategies in the form of policy on leadership dialogue, leadership decision-making and the paradox of profitability versus people. This project will conclude by exploring the best practice approach to the real-life implementation and review of this policy document.

The Purpose of Entering into a Missional Business Community: A Biblical & Theological Reflection

Why Business? Starting with a theology of work, it must be said that work is good. God himself worked (Gen 1:1-2:1), and He also intended that humanity similarly engage in work (Gen 1:28; 2:5, 15, 19).[4] As the reformers said, “work is a place to serve God.”[5] Thus, if work is an expression of faith, an act of worship whereby God can be honoured and glorified, the type of work one does becomes irrelevant. Hence the secular-sacred divide should no longer stand.

Jesus was in business. He was actively involved in the marketplace as a carpenter, but also as a teacher (both literally and metaphorically).[6] In turning to the Gospels, it becomes obvious. For example, Jesus often refers to: construction (Matt 7:24-27), agriculture/farming (Mark 4:2-20), management and labour (Matt 20:1-16), family business (Matt 21:28-31), hostile business dealings (Luke 20:9-16), return on investment (Matt 25:14-30), bankruptcy (Luke 15:11-16), stewardship and leverage (Luke 16:1-13), and investment analysis (Luke: 19:11-27).[7]

Prior to moving onto ‘why mission’, it should be noted that the potential economic, political, social, cultural and environmental implications of business in any developed or developing country are massive.[8] Accordingly, the intentionality (or lack thereof) that undergirds business strategy and policy will determine whether those implications are negative or positive.

Why Mission? As Halter and Smay remark, “mission represents God’s invitation to every Christ follower to participate in his work to bring redemption to the whole world”.[9] In terms of Biblical mandates, the Great Commission (Matt 28:18-20) was a missional commissioning. Interestingly, Dr Peter Christofides, suggests that in the original Greek, the ‘go’ in “Therefore go and make disciples of all nations…” is more appropriately translated in present continuous tense, that is, “as you go”.[10] Accordingly, such a missional commissioning should not be interpreted as “stop what you are doing and go…somewhere else…” Rather, the believer should understand it as an invitation to partner with Christ in his work to bring redemption to the whole world, as he or she simply goes about life, albeit with missional intentionality.

In light of the above, and briefly returning to the ‘why business’ question, it is interesting to note that “the commercial business marketplace may well be the primary mission field of the twenty-first century.”[11]

Bringing the two together in the context of community: In bringing this section to a close, it must be reiterated that the whole-life of the believer should be missional, regardless of vocation.[12] Yet focussing specifically on the purpose of this MBC, what if missional intentionality within the business context looked something like:

Real, viable, sustainable and profitable businesses; with a Kingdom of God purpose, perspective and impact; leading to transformation of peoples and societies spiritually, economically, socially and environmentally – to the great glory of God.[13]

In light of the biblical and theological discussion on ‘why business’ and ‘why mission’ canvassed thus far, this policy document suggests that the purpose of missional business in the context of community – “everything related to how God works his redemptive ways among people” – sets forth a compelling vocational invitation founded on missional intentionality.

Vision

On the subject of vision, Bill Hybels suggests that “vision is a picture of the future that produces passion.”[14] On the importance of vision, Harris comments, “vision is important because vision leads the leader.”[15]

In light of the above, it is obvious that vision is important, but what place does it have in a policy document. Well, Harris is of the view that amongst the chaos of the everyday, the leadership needs to be able to step back and run the activities of the organisation through the “grid” of its overall vision.[16] Obviously, it would be very hard to do this if the ‘vision’ had no form.

On creating vision, Harris suggests that one should start by envisaging the final outcome, or end product, and work back from there.[17] The vision statement should be idealistic yet realistic, challenging people to accomplish something rather than a lofty and inspiring statement that is unattainable or not actually going to result in productive and valuable outcomes.[18]

Accordingly, the draft vision statement for the MBC, which will continue to take shape as the vision creating conversation continues, is as follows:

In line with God’s plan to redeem all of creation, the vision of this missional business community is twofold. 1) That it influence the local business and marketplace culture towards pursuing social and sustainable community-centric goals, and 2) that it positively impact and transform oppressed and disadvantaged communities locally, nationally and internationally.

In light of this longer-term and lofty vision, the following mission statement, again a real life work-in-progress, is intended to capture what the MBC aspires to do well on a day-to-day basis.[19]

The mission of this business community is to pursue excellence and integrity across all business ventures for the purpose of delivering positive economic, cultural, social and environmental outcomes.

Goals

In turning to the subject of goal setting, Nelson and Toler suggest that the vision exudes the passion and emotion, whereas the goal “tells you intellectually what you want to accomplish”. [20] Thus, working backwards from vision, goals should be more of a systematic analysis of what needs to be achieved, in order for the vision to be realised.

For the MBC, the goal setting process might take shape in terms of a ‘Fruitfulness Index’. For example:

Ø  Community Impact Fruitfulness: Measurable improvements in resourcing and outcomes for the community development organisations that the MBC profits support.

Ø  Economic Fruitfulness: Distribution of funds (before profit) and bottom line profitability after distribution of funds for every MBC business venture.

Ø  Cultural Fruitfulness: Industry leading satisfaction at business-to-business, business-to-customer and business-to-employee levels.

Ø  Social Fruitfulness: Fair trade margins to every supplier in a developing country and 100% slavery-free supply chains.

Ø  Environmental Fruitfulness: 100% sustainable and organic product inputs where possible.

Ø  Diversified Fruitfulness: Continued investment in a range of diverse businesses across different sectors and industries in the interest of risk mitigation.

MBC Leadership Policy: Dialogue, Decision-Making & People

It is now time to focus specifically on potential complexities, challenges and dysfunctions within the MBC leadership team, and suggest mitigation and guidance strategies in the form of policy, on leadership dialogue, leadership decision-making and the paradox of profitability versus people.

Leadership Dialogue Policy: In turning to the first policy in and around leadership dialogue, Allender’s classification of the five main leadership challenges – crisis, complexity, betrayal, loneliness and weariness – will be utilised.[21]

Crisis in the context of a MBC is inevitable, especially in the arena of hospitality start-ups (something the MBC is currently doing serious due diligence on). In fact, the opportunity to encounter crisis and complexity in such an industry is almost endless, given what is involved in activities such as site acquisition, marketing/branding, procurement, fit-out, menu’s and pricing, operations, staffing, point of sale systems, insurances and approvals etc.

Similarly, leadership challenges of betrayal, loneliness and weariness are almost guaranteed. Hospitality hours are long and high intensity, whereby the never-ending to-do list and constant state of busyness can often result in weariness that manifests itself in fatalism.[22] Without a doubt, such physical and emotional drain would have the propensity to progress into a state of vulnerability, making one even more prone to feelings of loneliness and vulnerability.

So what role does policy have in light of such leadership challenges? Well Allender’s treatment of leadership challenges and associated ineffective and effective responses captures something noteworthy, and in this case, policy-worthy.[23] That is, in the “chaos and complexity of leadership”, the effective leader should be willing to stop and acknowledge the leadership challenge at hand, thus being able to reflect and choose an effective response rather than an ineffective, ‘knee-jerk’ response.[24] Hence, the most effective strategy to address such leadership challenges lies in dialogue, reflected in the following policy:

Leadership Dialogue: Policy # 1In the midst of any leadership challenge, the MBC leader who is directly impacted by a challenge must engage immediately in dialogue with one or more fellow MBC leaders, if they notice themselves responding to the challenge ineffectively. Similarly, the fellow MBC leaders have the right to engage in dialogue with the leader impacted by the challenge, if they are considered to be responding ineffectively.

Leadership Dialogue: Policy # 2The MBC leadership team commits to a policy of open and authentic dialogue, whereby, in the best interests of the MBC, if any feelings of frustration, disappointment, rejection, anxiety, hurt, anger or bitterness manifest in one or more of the MBC leaders, they must come to the table as soon as practically possible in order that such issues/emotions can be worked through and dealt with in a timely, sensitive and appropriate manner.

The purpose of the abovementioned policy is to encourage and initiate qualitative, reflective and intentional dialogue amongst the MBC leadership team.

Leadership Decision-Making Policy: The nature of any business syndicate is complex, especially in the area of leadership decision-making. In terms of the MBC structure, at this point in time there are four actively involved founders, thus a discussion in regard to decision making culminating in policy, is necessary.

Naturally, every decision has differing consequences. Whilst many decisions in the life of a leader do not come with the luxury of time for critical and analytical assessment, many do.[25] Typically, it is those decisions that come to table during meetings with the leadership team that require such analysis. Gangel lists four causes of ineffective decision-making, being, lack of clear-cut objectives, insecurity of position or authority, lack of information, and fear.[26] Interestingly, these causes of ineffective decision-making seem to align – and at times overlap – with Lencioni’s five dysfunctions of a team, being, absence of trust, fear of conflict, lack of commitment, avoidance of accountability and inattention to results.[27] Thus, what follows, is an attempt to create policy around the subject of leadership decision-making that seeks to mitigate against the abovementioned ineffective approaches to decision-making and team dysfunctionality:

Leadership Decision-Making: Policy # 1In the interest of effective decision making amongst the MBC leadership team, no problem or issue that requires a decision to be made will be brought to the table unless:

  1. a) The objective or purpose of making a decision on the particular issue is clear and agreed upon;
  2. b) There is clarity on the decision-making authority of those present;
  3. c) Background information on the issue at hand is provided, and;
  4. d) The potential (positive and/or negative) implications of each viable solution to the issue or problem are laid forth.

Leadership Decision-Making: Policy # 2All decisions to be made by the leadership team must be made:

  1. a) In good faith;
  2. b) In the best interest of all founders and stakeholders, and;
  3. c) In line with the vision and mission of the MBC and according to its values and beliefs.[28]

Leadership Decision-Making: Policy # 3All decisions to be made by the leadership team must be:

  1. a) Committed to in full by the entire leadership team*;
  2. b) Documented, rendering the entire leadership team accountable, and;
  3. c) Constantly revisited, analysed and measured for results-based effectiveness.

* In the event of high consequence decisions that result in divided opinion amongst the leadership team, outside input from trusted advisers of the MBC will be sought prior to a decision being made.

‘Profitability Versus People’ Policy: Leadership is riddled with the act of having to juggle numerous colliding truths at the same time.[29] This is known as paradox, and in the context of business, this is an everyday affair. In turning to the MBC, the million-dollar question is how the community can work towards its vision – influencing the local business and marketplace culture towards pursuing social and sustainable community-centric goals, and positively impacting and transforming oppressed and disadvantaged communities locally, nationally and internationally – through excellence and integrity, whilst also achieving its goal of ‘Cultural Fruitfulness’, that is, industry leading satisfaction at business-to-business, business-to-customer and business-to-employee levels. Thus, the obvious paradox here is that of ‘profitability versus people’. Without a doubt, policy is required to address this tension, if the MBC genuinely wants to move in the abovementioned direction.

Interestingly, on the subject of people, particularly in relation to effective organisational teams, Phillips defines teamwork as “working together toward the fulfilment of a desired outcome without the loss of one’s individuality”.[30] This is a telling definition, and could quite appropriately be expanded to “…without the loss of ones individuality, dignity, purpose, well-being, personal/family life or job satisfaction”. Thus, the following policy is based on the argument that effective leadership creates brilliant and productive team environments by choosing to prioritise the person above the profit.

Profitability Versus People: Policy # 1Every stakeholder in the MBC (including but not limited to suppliers, consultants, customers and employees) should be cared for, valued, nurtured and be working in their ‘strength-zone’. This is the first responsibility of any MBC leader.

Profitability Versus People: Policy # 2Profitability will be pursued only after having satisfied the abovementioned ‘Policy # 1’. Whilst this policy may at times impact negatively on profitability, which seem at odds with the long-term vision of the MBC – distribution of funds for the purpose of transforming oppressed and disadvantaged communities – this vision must be worked towards in light of the MBC’s mission statement, which reminds the organisation to place its people before profit by pursuing excellence, integrity and culturally positive outcomes.

Profitability Versus People: Policy # 3In light of the above, it must be remembered that the MBC endeavours to build profitable businesses – not charities. Thus, Policy # 1’ and ‘Policy # 2’ above do not stand as policy against the termination of an individual’s contract if circumstances demand such a course of action.

Policy Document Implementation & Review

Inevitably, this policy document, including the vision and mission statements, goals and policies need to be implemented and reviewed. This needs to be done strategically and in consultation with the other founders in order for the policy document to be of any value. Acknowledging the fact that this is a working document in its infancy, the implementation phase is actually going to be the culmination of continued brainstorming, development and re-working of this document. In this regard, Cooperrider’s “four-dimensional cycle of appreciative inquiry for a life-giving organisation” will be followed. This team-based (all founders) process includes discovering what gives the MBC life, dreaming about the fulfilment of the MBC’s vision, and exploring what the ideal design would look like.[31]  Completion of this process and unanimous agreement on the content will mark the conclusion of the development of the policy document, at which point the MBC embraces its destiny and implements the document.

The destiny dimension for Cooperrider is about sustaining gains, continued learning, and adjustment.[32] Accordingly, this appreciative inquiry cycle – with regard to the MBC policy document – will be repeated on an annual basis for the purpose of continuous improvement and review. Further, a platform for immediate feedback loops on the relevance (or lack thereof) and/or conflict/contradiction within the MBC policy document will be established, such that any urgent and pressing issues can be addressed as required.[33]

Conclusion

In drawing this policy document to a close, a brief summary is required. This project commenced with a Biblical and theological reflection on the purpose of entering into a MBC. In asking the question ‘why business’, a theology of work, Jesus’s role in the marketplace, and the potentially significant positive and/or negative implications of business – in terms of the economic, political, social, cultural and environmental outcomes – was addressed. Similarly, in asking the question ‘why mission’, a definition whereby “mission represents God’s invitation to every Christ follower to participate in his work to bring redemption to the whole world” was canvassed, and the “as you go” translation of the Great Commission was deemed an instruction for every believer to make disciples as they go about their daily life.[34]

In bringing the two together in the context of community, it was concluded that the purpose of entering into a missional business, in the context of community – “everything related to how God works his redemptive ways among people” – is a Biblically and theologically compelling vocational invitation founded on missional intentionality.

Following this, the policy document turned to vision, establishing that “vision is important because vision leads the leader” and that that amongst the chaos of the everyday, the leadership needs to be able to step back and run the activities of the organisation through the “grid” of its overall vision.[35] Subsequently, a vision and mission statement for the MBC was put forth, before a number of goals the MBC would hope to realize – as they work towards their vision – were suggested.

The remainder of this document focussed specifically on potential complexities, challenges and dysfunctions within the MBC leadership team, and suggested mitigation and guidance strategies in the form of policy on the importance of leadership dialogue, leadership decision-making criteria, and the primacy that the MBC leadership team will place on people over profit.

This project concluded by touching on Cooperrider’s “four-dimensional cycle of appreciative inquiry” in regard to the continued working-out and development of the MBC policy document prior its implementation; which would be upon unanimous acceptance and embrace.[36] Finally, it was deemed that the appreciative inquiry cycle would be repeated on an annual basis for the purpose of continuous improvement and review, as well as creating a platform for immediate feedback loops on the relevance (or lack thereof) and/or conflict/contradiction within the MBC policy document that can be addressed as required

Bibliography

“The Book of Common Prayer Online: Prayers of the People.” Last modified Accessed 27th May, 2016. http://www.bcponline.org/HE/pop.htm.

Allender, Dan B. Leading with a Limp: Turning Your Struggles into Strengths. Colorado Springs: Waterbrook, 2006.

BoardSource. The Nonprofit Board Answer Book: A Practical Guide for Board Members and Chief Executives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

Christofides, Dr Peter. Nt501: Jesus & the Gospels. 2016.

Cooperrider, D.L. “The Child as Agent of Inquiry.” Organizational Development Practitioner 28 (1996): 5-11.

Covey, Stephen R. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. London: Simon & Schuster, 1989.

Gangel, Kenneth O. “What Leaders Do.” In Leaders on Leadership, edited by George Barna, 31-46. Ventura: Regal, 1997.

Harris, Brian. The Tortoise Usually Wins: Biblical Reflections on Quiet Leadership for Reluctant Leaders. Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2013.

Hybels, Bill. Courageous Leadership. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.

Johnson, C. Neal. Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2009.

Lencioni, Patrick. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

Malony, H. Newton. Living with Paradox. California: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1998.

Nelson, Alan and Stan Toler. The Five Secrets to Becoming a Leader. Ventura: Regal, 2002.

Odgen, Greg. Unfinished Business: Returning the Ministry to the People of God. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003.

Phillips, Tom. “Building a Team to Get the Job Done.” In Leaders on Leadership, edited by George Barna, 213-38. Ventura: Regal, 1997.

Silvoso, Ed. Anointed for Business. Ventura: Regal, 2002.

Smay, Hugh Halter and Matt. The Tangible Kingdom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

Tunehag, Mats. God Means Business! An Introduction to Business as Mission, Bam. 2008.

[1] C. Neal Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2009), 27. Citing the Book of Common Prayer “The Book of Common Prayer Online: Prayers of the People,” accessed 27th May, 2016. http://www.bcponline.org/HE/pop.htm.

[2] Hugh Halter and Matt Smay, The Tangible Kingdom (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008), 149.

[3] Brian Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins: Biblical Reflections on Quiet Leadership for Reluctant Leaders (Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2013), 102, 05.

[4] Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice, 154-55.

[5] Ibid., 185-86. Citing Greg Odgen, Unfinished Business: Returning the Ministry to the People of God (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003), 256-57. Referring to Luther and Calvin.

[6] Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice, 169-70.

[7] Ibid., 170. Citing Ed Silvoso, Anointed for Business (Ventura: Regal, 2002), 41. Construction (Parable of the Wise & Foolish Builders: Matt 7:24-27); agriculture/farming (Parable of the Sower: Mark: 4:2-20); management and labour (Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard: Matt 20:1-16); family business (Parable of the Two Sons: Matt 21:28-31); hostile business dealings (Parable of the Tenants: Luke 20:9-16); return on investment (Parable of the Bags of Gold: Matt 25:14-30); bankruptcy (Parable of the Lost Son: Luke 15:11-16); stewardship and leverage (Parable of the Shrewd Manager: Luke 16:1-13) and investment analysis (Parable of the Ten Minas: Luke: 19:11-27).

[8] Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice, 35-36.

[9] Smay, The Tangible Kingdom, 149.

[10] Dr Peter Christofides, Nt501: Jesus & the Gospels (2016). This refers to Dr Peter Christofides in an unpublished lecture on 16th March 2016 at Vose Seminary, Perth, Western Australia.

[11] Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice, 27. Citing a personal communication from Dr. Charles Van Engen, Professor of Biblical Theology of Mission, School of World Mission, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, CA on January 12th 2002 in Pasadena.

[12] Ibid., 156. For further Biblical evidence on this point see 1 Peter 2:5, 9 on the priesthood of all believers.

[13] Ibid., 30. Citing Mats Tunehag, God Means Business! An Introduction to Business as Mission, Bam (2008), 8.

[14] Bill Hybels, Courageous Leadership (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002), 32.

[15] Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 105.

[16] Ibid., 102.

[17] Ibid., 108-09. Citing Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic (London: Simon & Schuster, 1989), 99.

[18] BoardSource, The Nonprofit Board Answer Book: A Practical Guide for Board Members and Chief Executives (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007), 11. And Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 109-10.

[19] Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 100-01.

[20] Ibid., 105. Citing Alan Nelson and Stan Toler, The Five Secrets to Becoming a Leader (Ventura: Regal, 2002), 36.

[21] Dan B. Allender, Leading with a Limp: Turning Your Struggles into Strengths (Colorado Springs: Waterbrook, 2006).

[22] Ibid., 128.

[23] Ibid., 8-9.

[24] Ibid., 8. Allender acknowledges that in the “chaos and complexity of leadership” there is no ‘one case fits all’ description of the most effective responses to leadership challenges.

[25] Kenneth O. Gangel, “What Leaders Do,” in Leaders on Leadership, ed. George Barna (Ventura: Regal, 1997), 39.

[26] Ibid., 39-40.

[27] Patrick Lencioni, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002).

[28] Values and beliefs for the MBC are beyond the scope of this project

[29] See H. Newton Malony, Living with Paradox (California: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1998). And Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 31-33.

[30] Tom Phillips, “Building a Team to Get the Job Done,” in Leaders on Leadership, ed. George Barna (Ventura: Regal, 1997), 214. Emphasis mine.

[31] Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 91. Citing D.L. Cooperrider, “The Child as Agent of Inquiry,” Organizational Development Practitioner 28 (1996): 5-11.

[32] Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 91. Citing Cooperrider, “The Child as Agent of Inquiry,” 5-11.

[33] In Johnson, Business as Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice, 403-07. He talks about such feedback, assessment and revision in the context of a Strategic Master BAM [Business As Mission] Plan (an SMBP).

[34] Smay, The Tangible Kingdom, 149.

[35] Harris, The Tortoise Usually Wins, 102, 05.

[36] Cooperrider, “The Child as Agent of Inquiry,” 5-11.

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